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__init__.py

# Copyright 2001-2004 Brad Chapman.
# Revisions copyright 2009 by Peter Cock.
# All rights reserved.
# This code is part of the Biopython distribution and governed by its
# license.  Please see the LICENSE file that should have been included
# as part of this package.
"""General mechanisms to access applications in Biopython.
"""
import os, sys
import StringIO
import subprocess

from Bio import File

def generic_run(commandline):
    """Run an application with the given commandline (OBSOLETE).

    This expects a pre-built commandline that derives from 
    AbstractCommandline, and returns a ApplicationResult object
    to get results from a program, along with handles of the
    standard output and standard error.

    WARNING - This will read in the full program output into memory!
    This may be in issue when the program writes a large amount of
    data to standard output.

    NOTE - This function is considered to be obsolete, and we intend to
    deprecate it and then remove it in future releases of Biopython.
    We now recommend you invoke subprocess directly, using str(commandline)
    to turn an AbstractCommandline wrapper into a command line string. This
    will give you full control of the tool's input and output as well.
    """
    #We don't need to supply any piped input, but we setup the
    #standard input pipe anyway as a work around for a python
    #bug if this is called from a Windows GUI program.  For
    #details, see http://bugs.python.org/issue1124861
    child = subprocess.Popen(str(commandline),
                             stdin=subprocess.PIPE,
                             stdout=subprocess.PIPE,
                             stderr=subprocess.PIPE,
                             shell=(sys.platform!="win32"))
    #Use .communicate as might get deadlocks with .wait(), see Bug 2804/2806
    r_out, e_out = child.communicate()
    # capture error code:
    error_code = child.returncode
    return ApplicationResult(commandline, error_code), \
           File.UndoHandle(StringIO.StringIO(r_out)), \
           File.UndoHandle(StringIO.StringIO(e_out))

00050 class ApplicationResult:
    """Make results of a program available through a standard interface (OBSOLETE).
    
    This tries to pick up output information available from the program
    and make it available programmatically.

    NOTE - This obsolete is considered to be obsolete, and we intend to
    deprecate it and then remove it in future releases of Biopython.
    """
00059     def __init__(self, application_cl, return_code):
        """Intialize with the commandline from the program.
        """
        self._cl = application_cl

        # provide the return code of the application
        self.return_code = return_code

        # get the application dependent results we can provide
        # right now the only results we handle are output files
        self._results = {}

        for parameter in self._cl.parameters:
            if "file" in parameter.param_types and \
               "output" in parameter.param_types:
                if parameter.is_set:
                    self._results[parameter.names[-1]] = parameter.value

00077     def get_result(self, output_name):
        """Retrieve result information for the given output.

        Supports any of the defined parameters aliases (assuming the
        parameter is defined as an output).
        """
        try :
            return self._results[output_name]
        except KeyError, err :
            #Try the aliases...
            for parameter in self._cl.parameters:
                if output_name in parameter.names :
                    return self._results[parameter.names[-1]]
            #No, really was a key error:
            raise err

00093     def available_results(self):
        """Retrieve a list of all available results.
        """
        result_names = self._results.keys()
        result_names.sort()
        return result_names

00100 class AbstractCommandline(object):
    """Generic interface for constructing command line strings.

    This class shouldn't be called directly; it should be subclassed to
    provide an implementation for a specific application.

    For a usage example we'll show one of the EMBOSS wrappers.  You can set
    options when creating the wrapper object using keyword arguments - or later
    using their corresponding properties:

    >>> from Bio.Emboss.Applications import WaterCommandline
    >>> cline = WaterCommandline(gapopen=10, gapextend=0.5)
    >>> cline
    WaterCommandline(cmd='water', gapopen=10, gapextend=0.5)

    You can instead manipulate the parameters via their properties, e.g.

    >>> cline.gapopen
    10
    >>> cline.gapopen = 20
    >>> cline
    WaterCommandline(cmd='water', gapopen=20, gapextend=0.5)

    You can clear a parameter you have already added by 'deleting' the
    corresponding property:

    >>> del cline.gapopen
    >>> cline.gapopen
    >>> cline
    WaterCommandline(cmd='water', gapextend=0.5)

    Once you have set the parameters you need, turn the object into a string:

    >>> str(cline)
    Traceback (most recent call last):
    ...
    ValueError: You must either set outfile (output filename), or enable filter or stdout (output to stdout).

    In this case the wrapper knows certain arguments are required to construct
    a valid command line for the tool.  For a complete example,

    >>> from Bio.Emboss.Applications import WaterCommandline
    >>> cline = WaterCommandline(gapopen=10, gapextend=0.5)
    >>> cline.asequence = "asis:ACCCGGGCGCGGT"
    >>> cline.bsequence = "asis:ACCCGAGCGCGGT"
    >>> cline.outfile = "temp_water.txt"
    >>> print cline
    water -outfile=temp_water.txt -asequence=asis:ACCCGGGCGCGGT -bsequence=asis:ACCCGAGCGCGGT -gapopen=10 -gapextend=0.5
    >>> cline
    WaterCommandline(cmd='water', outfile='temp_water.txt', asequence='asis:ACCCGGGCGCGGT', bsequence='asis:ACCCGAGCGCGGT', gapopen=10, gapextend=0.5)

    You would typically run the command line via a standard Python operating
    system call (e.g. using the subprocess module).
    """
00154     def __init__(self, cmd, **kwargs):
        """Create a new instance of a command line wrapper object."""
        # Init method - should be subclassed!
        # 
        # The subclass methods should look like this:
        # 
        # def __init__(self, cmd="muscle", **kwargs) :
        #     self.parameters = [...]
        #     AbstractCommandline.__init__(self, cmd, **kwargs)
        # 
        # i.e. There should have an optional argument "cmd" to set the location
        # of the executable (with a sensible default which should work if the
        # command is on the path on Unix), and keyword arguments.  It should
        # then define a list of parameters, all objects derived from the base
        # class _AbstractParameter.
        # 
        # The keyword arguments should be any valid parameter name, and will
        # be used to set the associated parameter.
        self.program_name = cmd
        try :
            parameters = self.parameters
        except AttributeError :
            raise AttributeError("Subclass should have defined self.parameters")
        #Create properties for each parameter at run time
        aliases = set()
        for p in parameters :
            for name in p.names :
                if name in aliases :
                    raise ValueError("Parameter alias %s multiply defined" \
                                     % name)
                aliases.add(name)
            name = p.names[-1]
            #Beware of binding-versus-assignment confusion issues
            def getter(name) :
                return lambda x : x._get_parameter(name)
            def setter(name) :
                return lambda x, value : x.set_parameter(name, value)
            def deleter(name) :
                return lambda x : x._clear_parameter(name)
            doc = p.description
            if isinstance(p, _Switch) :
                doc += "\n\nThis property controls the addition of the %s " \
                       "switch, treat this property as a boolean." % p.names[0]
            else :
                doc += "\n\nThis controls the addition of the %s parameter " \
                       "and its associated value.  Set this property to the " \
                       "argument value required." % p.names[0]
            prop = property(getter(name), setter(name), deleter(name), doc)
            setattr(self.__class__, name, prop) #magic!
        for key, value in kwargs.iteritems() :
            self.set_parameter(key, value)
    
00206     def _validate(self):
        """Make sure the required parameters have been set (PRIVATE).

        No return value - it either works or raises a ValueError.

        This is a separate method (called from __str__) so that subclasses may
        override it.
        """
        for p in self.parameters:
            #Check for missing required parameters:
            if p.is_required and not(p.is_set):
                raise ValueError("Parameter %s is not set." \
                                 % p.names[-1])
            #Also repeat the parameter validation here, just in case?

00221     def __str__(self):
        """Make the commandline string with the currently set options.

        e.g.
        >>> from Bio.Emboss.Applications import WaterCommandline
        >>> cline = WaterCommandline(gapopen=10, gapextend=0.5)
        >>> cline.asequence = "asis:ACCCGGGCGCGGT"
        >>> cline.bsequence = "asis:ACCCGAGCGCGGT"
        >>> cline.outfile = "temp_water.txt"
        >>> print cline
        water -outfile=temp_water.txt -asequence=asis:ACCCGGGCGCGGT -bsequence=asis:ACCCGAGCGCGGT -gapopen=10 -gapextend=0.5
        >>> str(cline)
        'water -outfile=temp_water.txt -asequence=asis:ACCCGGGCGCGGT -bsequence=asis:ACCCGAGCGCGGT -gapopen=10 -gapextend=0.5'
        """
        self._validate()
        commandline = "%s " % self.program_name
        for parameter in self.parameters:
            if parameter.is_set:
                #This will include a trailing space:
                commandline += str(parameter)
        return commandline.strip() # remove trailing space

00243     def __repr__(self):
        """Return a representation of the command line object for debugging.

        e.g.
        >>> from Bio.Emboss.Applications import WaterCommandline
        >>> cline = WaterCommandline(gapopen=10, gapextend=0.5)
        >>> cline.asequence = "asis:ACCCGGGCGCGGT"
        >>> cline.bsequence = "asis:ACCCGAGCGCGGT"
        >>> cline.outfile = "temp_water.txt"
        >>> print cline
        water -outfile=temp_water.txt -asequence=asis:ACCCGGGCGCGGT -bsequence=asis:ACCCGAGCGCGGT -gapopen=10 -gapextend=0.5
        >>> cline
        WaterCommandline(cmd='water', outfile='temp_water.txt', asequence='asis:ACCCGGGCGCGGT', bsequence='asis:ACCCGAGCGCGGT', gapopen=10, gapextend=0.5)
        """
        answer = "%s(cmd=%s" % (self.__class__.__name__, repr(self.program_name))
        for parameter in self.parameters:
            if parameter.is_set:
                if isinstance(parameter, _Switch):
                    answer += ", %s=True" % parameter.names[-1]
                else :
                    answer += ", %s=%s" \
                              % (parameter.names[-1], repr(parameter.value))
        answer += ")"
        return answer

00268     def _get_parameter(self, name) :
        """Get a commandline option value."""
        for parameter in self.parameters:
            if name in parameter.names:
                if isinstance(parameter, _Switch) :
                    return parameter.is_set
                else :
                    return parameter.value
        raise ValueError("Option name %s was not found." % name)

00278     def _clear_parameter(self, name) :
        """Reset or clear a commandline option value."""
        cleared_option = False
        for parameter in self.parameters:
            if name in parameter.names:
                parameter.value = None
                parameter.is_set = False
                cleared_option = True
        if not cleared_option :
            raise ValueError("Option name %s was not found." % name)
        
00289     def set_parameter(self, name, value = None):
        """Set a commandline option for a program.
        """
        set_option = False
        for parameter in self.parameters:
            if name in parameter.names:
                if isinstance(parameter, _Switch) :
                    if value is None :
                        import warnings
                        warnings.warn("For a switch type argument like %s, "
                                      "we expect a boolean.  None is treated "
                                      "as FALSE!" % parameter.names[-1])
                    parameter.is_set = bool(value)
                    set_option = True
                else :
                    if value is not None:
                        self._check_value(value, name, parameter.checker_function)
                        parameter.value = value
                    parameter.is_set = True
                    set_option = True
        if not set_option :
            raise ValueError("Option name %s was not found." % name)

00312     def _check_value(self, value, name, check_function):
        """Check whether the given value is valid.

        No return value - it either works or raises a ValueError.

        This uses the passed function 'check_function', which can either
        return a [0, 1] (bad, good) value or raise an error. Either way
        this function will raise an error if the value is not valid, or
        finish silently otherwise.
        """
        if check_function is not None:
            is_good = check_function(value) #May raise an exception
            assert is_good in [0,1,True,False]
            if not is_good :
                raise ValueError("Invalid parameter value %r for parameter %s" \
                                 % (value, name))
                    
00329 class _AbstractParameter:
    """A class to hold information about a parameter for a commandline.

    Do not use this directly, instead use one of the subclasses.
    """
    def __init__(self) :
        raise NotImplementedError

    def __str__(self) :
        raise NotImplementedError

00340 class _Option(_AbstractParameter):
    """Represent an option that can be set for a program.

    This holds UNIXish options like --append=yes and -a yes,
    where a value (here "yes") is generally expected.

    For UNIXish options like -kimura in clustalw which don't
    take a value, use the _Switch object instead.

    Attributes:

    o names -- a list of string names by which the parameter can be
    referenced (ie. ["-a", "--append", "append"]). The first name in
    the list is considered to be the one that goes on the commandline,
    for those parameters that print the option. The last name in the list
    is assumed to be a "human readable" name describing the option in one
    word.

    o param_types -- a list of string describing the type of parameter, 
    which can help let programs know how to use it. Example descriptions
    include 'input', 'output', 'file'.  Note that if 'file' is included,
    these argument values will automatically be escaped if the filename
    contains spaces.

    o checker_function -- a reference to a function that will determine
    if a given value is valid for this parameter. This function can either
    raise an error when given a bad value, or return a [0, 1] decision on
    whether the value is correct.

    o equate -- should an equals sign be inserted if a value is used?

    o description -- a description of the option.

    o is_required -- a flag to indicate if the parameter must be set for
    the program to be run.

    o is_set -- if the parameter has been set

    o value -- the value of a parameter
    """
    def __init__(self, names = [], types = [], checker_function = None, 
                 is_required = False, description = "", equate=True):
        self.names = names
        self.param_types = types
        self.checker_function = checker_function
        self.description = description
        self.equate = equate
        self.is_required = is_required

        self.is_set = False
        self.value = None

00392     def __str__(self):
        """Return the value of this option for the commandline.

        Includes a trailing space.
        """
        # Note: Before equate was handled explicitly, the old
        # code would do either "--name " or "--name=value ",
        # or " -name " or " -name value ".  This choice is now
        # now made explicitly when setting up the option.
        if self.value is None :
            return "%s " % self.names[0]
        if "file" in self.param_types :
            v = _escape_filename(self.value)
        else :
            v = str(self.value)
        if self.equate :
            return "%s=%s " % (self.names[0], v)
        else :
            return "%s %s " % (self.names[0], v)

00412 class _Switch(_AbstractParameter):
    """Represent an optional argument switch for a program.

    This holds UNIXish options like -kimura in clustalw which don't
    take a value, they are either included in the command string
    or omitted.

    o names -- a list of string names by which the parameter can be
    referenced (ie. ["-a", "--append", "append"]). The first name in
    the list is considered to be the one that goes on the commandline,
    for those parameters that print the option. The last name in the list
    is assumed to be a "human readable" name describing the option in one
    word.

    o param_types -- a list of string describing the type of parameter, 
    which can help let programs know how to use it. Example descriptions
    include 'input', 'output', 'file'.  Note that if 'file' is included,
    these argument values will automatically be escaped if the filename
    contains spaces.

    o description -- a description of the option.

    o is_set -- if the parameter has been set

    NOTE - There is no value attribute, see is_set instead,
    """
    def __init__(self, names = [], types = [], description = ""):
        self.names = names
        self.param_types = types
        self.description = description
        self.is_set = False
        self.is_required = False

00445     def __str__(self):
        """Return the value of this option for the commandline.

        Includes a trailing space.
        """
        assert not hasattr(self, "value")
        if self.is_set :
            return "%s " % self.names[0]
        else :
            return ""

00456 class _Argument(_AbstractParameter):
    """Represent an argument on a commandline.
    """
    def __init__(self, names = [], types = [], checker_function = None, 
                 is_required = False, description = ""):
        self.names = names
        self.param_types = types
        self.checker_function = checker_function
        self.description = description
        self.is_required = is_required
        self.is_set = False
        self.value = None

    def __str__(self):
        if self.value is None:
            return " "
        else :
            return "%s " % self.value

def _escape_filename(filename) :
    """Escape filenames with spaces by adding quotes (PRIVATE).

    Note this will not add quotes if they are already included:
    
    >>> print _escape_filename('example with spaces')
    "example with spaces"
    >>> print _escape_filename('"example with spaces"')
    "example with spaces"
    """
    #Is adding the following helpful
    #if os.path.isfile(filename) :
    #    #On Windows, if the file exists, we can ask for
    #    #its alternative short name (DOS style 8.3 format)
    #    #which has no spaces in it.  Note that this name
    #    #is not portable between machines, or even folder!
    #    try :
    #        import win32api
    #        short = win32api.GetShortPathName(filename)
    #        assert os.path.isfile(short)
    #        return short
    #    except ImportError :
    #        pass
    if " " not in filename :
        return filename
    #We'll just quote it - works on Windows, Mac OS X etc
    if filename.startswith('"') and filename.endswith('"') :
        #Its already quoted
        return filename
    else :
        return '"%s"' % filename

def _test():
    """Run the Bio.Application module's doctests.

    This will try and locate the unit tests directory, and run the doctests
    from there in order that the relative paths used in the examples work.
    """
    import doctest
    doctest.testmod(verbose=1)

if __name__ == "__main__":
    #Run the doctests
    _test()

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