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Nexus.py
# Copyright 2005-2008 by Frank Kauff & Cymon J. Cox. All rights reserved.
# This code is part of the Biopython distribution and governed by its
# license. Please see the LICENSE file that should have been included
# as part of this package.
#
# Bug reports welcome: fkauff@biologie.uni-kl.de or on Biopython's bugzilla.
"""Nexus class. Parse the contents of a NEXUS file.

Based upon 'NEXUS: An extensible file format for systematic information'
Maddison, Swofford, Maddison. 1997. Syst. Biol. 46(4):590-621
"""

import os,sys, math, random, copy

from Bio.Alphabet import IUPAC
from Bio.Data import IUPACData
from Bio.Seq import Seq

from Trees import Tree,NodeData

INTERLEAVE=70
SPECIAL_COMMANDS=['charstatelabels','charlabels','taxlabels', 'taxset', 'charset','charpartition','taxpartition',\
        'matrix','tree', 'utree','translate','codonposset','title']
KNOWN_NEXUS_BLOCKS = ['trees','data', 'characters', 'taxa', 'sets','codons']
PUNCTUATION='()[]{}/\,;:=*\'"`+-<>'
MRBAYESSAFE='abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyzABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ1234567890_'
WHITESPACE=' \t\n'
#SPECIALCOMMENTS=['!','&','%','/','\\','@'] #original list of special comments
SPECIALCOMMENTS=['&'] # supported special comment ('tree' command), all others are ignored
CHARSET='chars'
TAXSET='taxa'
CODONPOSITIONS='codonpositions'
DEFAULTNEXUS='#NEXUS\nbegin data; dimensions ntax=0 nchar=0; format datatype=dna; end; '
00034 class NexusError(Exception): pass

00036 class CharBuffer(object):
    """Helps reading NEXUS-words and characters from a buffer."""
    def __init__(self,string):
        if string:
            self.buffer=list(string)
        else:
            self.buffer=[]
    
    def peek(self):
        if self.buffer:
            return self.buffer[0]
        else:
            return None

    def peek_nonwhitespace(self):
        b=''.join(self.buffer).strip()
        if b:
            return b[0]
        else:
            return None
                
    def next(self):
        if self.buffer:
            return self.buffer.pop(0)
        else:
            return None

    def next_nonwhitespace(self):
        while True:
            p=self.next()
            if p is None:
                break
            if p not in WHITESPACE: 
                return p
        return None

    def skip_whitespace(self):
        while self.buffer[0] in WHITESPACE:
            self.buffer=self.buffer[1:]
    
    def next_until(self,target):
        for t in target:
            try:
                pos=self.buffer.index(t)
            except ValueError:
                pass
            else:
                found=''.join(self.buffer[:pos])
                self.buffer=self.buffer[pos:]
                return found
        else:
            return None

    def peek_word(self,word):
        return ''.join(self.buffer[:len(word)])==word
    
00092     def next_word(self):
        """Return the next NEXUS word from a string.

        This deals with single and double quotes, whitespace and punctuation.
        """

        word=[]
        quoted=False
        first=self.next_nonwhitespace()                                   # get first character
        if not first:                                       # return empty if only whitespace left
            return None
        word.append(first)
        if first=="'":                                      # word starts with a quote
            quoted="'"
        elif first=='"':
            quoted='"'
        elif first in PUNCTUATION:                          # if it's punctuation, return immediately
            return first
        while True:             
            c=self.peek()
            if c==quoted:                                      # a quote?
                word.append(self.next())                    # store quote 
                if self.peek()==quoted:                        # double quote
                    skip=self.next()                        # skip second quote 
                elif quoted:                                # second single quote ends word
                    break
            elif quoted:
                word.append(self.next())                              # if quoted, then add anything
            elif not c or c in PUNCTUATION or c in WHITESPACE:        # if not quoted and special character, stop 
                break
            else:
                word.append(self.next())                    # standard character
        return ''.join(word)
                
00126     def rest(self):
        """Return the rest of the string without parsing."""
        return ''.join(self.buffer)

00130 class StepMatrix(object):
    """Calculate a stepmatrix for weighted parsimony.

    See Wheeler (1990), Cladistics 6:269-275.
    """
    
    def __init__(self,symbols,gap):
        self.data={}
        self.symbols=[s for s in symbols]
        self.symbols.sort()
        if gap:
            self.symbols.append(gap)
        for x in self.symbols:
            for y in [s for s in self.symbols if s!=x]:
                self.set(x,y,0)

    def set(self,x,y,value):
        if x>y:
            x,y=y,x
        self.data[x+y]=value

    def add(self,x,y,value):
        if x>y:
            x,y=y,x
        self.data[x+y]+=value

    def sum(self):
        return reduce(lambda x,y:x+y,self.data.values()) 

    def transformation(self):
        total=self.sum()
        if total!=0:
            for k in self.data:
                self.data[k]=self.data[k]/float(total)
        return self
    
    def weighting(self):
        for k in self.data:
            if self.data[k]!=0:
                self.data[k]=-math.log(self.data[k])
        return self

    def smprint(self,name='your_name_here'):
        matrix='usertype %s stepmatrix=%d\n' % (name,len(self.symbols))
        matrix+='        %s\n' % '        '.join(self.symbols)
        for x in self.symbols:
            matrix+='[%s]'.ljust(8) % x
            for y in self.symbols:
                if x==y:
                    matrix+=' .       '
                else:
                    if x>y:
                        x1,y1=y,x
                    else:
                        x1,y1=x,y
                    if self.data[x1+y1]==0:
                        matrix+='inf.     '
                    else:
                        matrix+='%2.2f'.ljust(10) % (self.data[x1+y1])
            matrix+='\n'
        matrix+=';\n'
        return matrix
    
def safename(name,mrbayes=False):
    """Return a taxon identifier according to NEXUS standard.

    Wrap quotes around names with punctuation or whitespace, and double
    single quotes.

    mrbayes=True: write names without quotes, whitespace or punctuation
    for the mrbayes software package.
    """
    if mrbayes:
        safe=name.replace(' ','_')
        safe=''.join([c for c in safe if c in MRBAYESSAFE])
    else:
        safe=name.replace("'","''")
        if set(safe).intersection(set(WHITESPACE+PUNCTUATION)):
            safe="'"+safe+"'"
    return safe

def quotestrip(word):
    """Remove quotes and/or double quotes around identifiers."""
    if not word:
        return None
    while (word.startswith("'") and word.endswith("'")) or (word.startswith('"') and word.endswith('"')):
        word=word[1:-1]
    return word

def get_start_end(sequence, skiplist=['-','?']):
    """Return position of first and last character which is not in skiplist.

    Skiplist defaults to ['-','?'])."""

    length=len(sequence)
    if length==0:
        return None,None
    end=length-1
    while end>=0 and (sequence[end] in skiplist):
        end-=1
    start=0
    while start<length and (sequence[start] in skiplist):
        start+=1
    if start==length and end==-1: # empty sequence
        return -1,-1
    else:
        return start,end 
    
def _sort_keys_by_values(p):
    """Returns a sorted list of keys of p sorted by values of p."""     
    startpos=[(p[pn],pn) for pn in p if p[pn]]
    startpos.sort()
    # parenthisis added because of py3k
    return (zip(*startpos))[1]
    
def _make_unique(l):
    """Check that all values in list are unique and return a pruned and sorted list."""
    l=list(set(l))
    l.sort()
    return l

def _unique_label(previous_labels,label):
    """Returns a unique name if label is already in previous_labels."""
    while label in previous_labels:
        if label.split('.')[-1].startswith('copy'):
            label='.'.join(label.split('.')[:-1])+'.copy'+str(eval('0'+label.split('.')[-1][4:])+1)
        else:
            label+='.copy'
    return label

def _seqmatrix2strmatrix(matrix):
    """Converts a Seq-object matrix to a plain sequence-string matrix."""
    return dict([(t,matrix[t].tostring()) for t in matrix])

def _compact4nexus(orig_list):
    """Transform [1 2 3 5 6 7 8 12 15 18 20] (baseindex 0, used in the Nexus class)
    into '2-4 6-9 13-19\\3 21' (baseindex 1, used in programs like Paup or MrBayes.).
    """
    
    if not orig_list:
        return ''
    orig_list=list(set(orig_list))
    orig_list.sort()
    shortlist=[]
    clist=orig_list[:]
    clist.append(clist[-1]+.5) # dummy value makes it easier 
    while len(clist)>1:
        step=1
        for i,x in enumerate(clist):
            if x==clist[0]+i*step:   # are we still in the right step?
                continue
            elif i==1 and len(clist)>3 and clist[i+1]-x==x-clist[0]:
                # second element, and possibly at least 3 elements to link,
                # and the next one is in the right step 
                step=x-clist[0]
            else:   # pattern broke, add all values before current position to new list
                sub=clist[:i]
                if len(sub)==1:
                    shortlist.append(str(sub[0]+1))
                else:
                    if step==1:
                        shortlist.append('%d-%d' % (sub[0]+1,sub[-1]+1))
                    else:
                        shortlist.append('%d-%d\\%d' % (sub[0]+1,sub[-1]+1,step))
                clist=clist[i:]
                break
    return ' '.join(shortlist)

def combine(matrices):
    """Combine matrices in [(name,nexus-instance),...] and return new nexus instance.

    combined_matrix=combine([(name1,nexus_instance1),(name2,nexus_instance2),...]
    Character sets, character partitions and taxon sets are prefixed, readjusted
    and present in the combined matrix. 
    """
    
    if not matrices:
        return None
    name=matrices[0][0]
    combined=copy.deepcopy(matrices[0][1]) # initiate with copy of first matrix
    mixed_datatypes=(len(set([n[1].datatype for n in matrices]))>1)
    if mixed_datatypes:
        combined.datatype='None'    # dealing with mixed matrices is application specific. You take care of that yourself!
    #    raise NexusError('Matrices must be of same datatype')
    combined.charlabels=None
    combined.statelabels=None
    combined.interleave=False
    combined.translate=None

    # rename taxon sets and character sets and name them with prefix
    for cn,cs in combined.charsets.iteritems():
        combined.charsets['%s.%s' % (name,cn)]=cs
        del combined.charsets[cn]
    for tn,ts in combined.taxsets.iteritems():
        combined.taxsets['%s.%s' % (name,tn)]=ts
        del combined.taxsets[tn]
    # previous partitions usually don't make much sense in combined matrix
    # just initiate one new partition parted by single matrices
    combined.charpartitions={'combined':{name:range(combined.nchar)}}
    for n,m in matrices[1:]:    # add all other matrices
        both=[t for t in combined.taxlabels if t in m.taxlabels]
        combined_only=[t for t in combined.taxlabels if t not in both]
        m_only=[t for t in m.taxlabels if t not in both]
        for t in both:
            # concatenate sequences and unify gap and missing character symbols
            combined.matrix[t]+=Seq(m.matrix[t].tostring().replace(m.gap,combined.gap).replace(m.missing,combined.missing),combined.alphabet)
        # replace date of missing taxa with symbol for missing data
        for t in combined_only:
            combined.matrix[t]+=Seq(combined.missing*m.nchar,combined.alphabet)
        for t in m_only:
            combined.matrix[t]=Seq(combined.missing*combined.nchar,combined.alphabet)+\
                Seq(m.matrix[t].tostring().replace(m.gap,combined.gap).replace(m.missing,combined.missing),combined.alphabet)
        combined.taxlabels.extend(m_only)    # new taxon list
        for cn,cs in m.charsets.iteritems(): # adjust character sets for new matrix
            combined.charsets['%s.%s' % (n,cn)]=[x+combined.nchar for x in cs]
        if m.taxsets:
            if not combined.taxsets:
                combined.taxsets={}
            # update taxon sets
            combined.taxsets.update(dict(('%s.%s' % (n,tn),ts) \
                                         for tn,ts in m.taxsets.iteritems()))
        # update new charpartition
        combined.charpartitions['combined'][n]=range(combined.nchar,combined.nchar+m.nchar)
        # update charlabels
        if m.charlabels:
            if not combined.charlabels:
                combined.charlabels={}
            combined.charlabels.update(dict((combined.nchar+i,label) \
                                            for (i,label) in m.charlabels.iteritems()))
        combined.nchar+=m.nchar # update nchar and ntax
        combined.ntax+=len(m_only)
        
    # some prefer partitions, some charsets:
    # make separate charset for ecah initial dataset
    for c in combined.charpartitions['combined']:
        combined.charsets[c]=combined.charpartitions['combined'][c]

    return combined

def _kill_comments_and_break_lines(text):
    """Delete []-delimited comments out of a file and break into lines separated by ';'.
    
    stripped_text=_kill_comments_and_break_lines(text):
    Nested and multiline comments are allowed. [ and ] symbols within single
    or double quotes are ignored, newline ends a quote, all symbols with quotes are
    treated the same (thus not quoting inside comments like [this character ']' ends a comment])
    Special [&...] and [\...] comments remain untouched, if not inside standard comment.
    Quotes inside special [& and [\ are treated as normal characters,
    but no nesting inside these special comments allowed (like [&   [\   ]]).
    ';' ist deleted from end of line.
   
    NOTE: this function is very slow for large files, and obsolete when using C extension cnexus
    """
    contents=CharBuffer(text)
    newtext=[] 
    newline=[]
    quotelevel=''
    speciallevel=False
    commlevel=0
    while True:
        #plain=contents.next_until(["'",'"','[',']','\n',';'])   # search for next special character
        #if not plain:
        #    newline.append(contents.rest)                       # not found, just add the rest
        #    break
        #newline.append(plain)                                   # add intermediate text
        t=contents.next()                                       # and get special character
        if t is None:
            break
        if t==quotelevel and not (commlevel or speciallevel):            # matching quote ends quotation
            quotelevel=''
        elif not quotelevel and not (commlevel or speciallevel) and (t=='"' or t=="'"): # single or double quote starts quotation
            quotelevel=t
        elif not quotelevel and t=='[':                             # opening bracket outside a quote
            if contents.peek() in SPECIALCOMMENTS and commlevel==0 and not speciallevel:
                speciallevel=True
            else:
                commlevel+=1
        elif not quotelevel and t==']':                             # closing bracket ioutside a quote 
            if speciallevel:
                speciallevel=False
            else:
                commlevel-=1
                if commlevel<0:
                    raise NexusError('Nexus formatting error: unmatched ]')
                continue 
        if commlevel==0:                        # copy if we're not in comment
            if t==';' and not quotelevel:
                newtext.append(''.join(newline))
                newline=[]
            else:
                newline.append(t)
    #level of comments should be 0 at the end of the file
    if newline:
        newtext.append('\n'.join(newline))
    if commlevel>0:
        raise NexusError('Nexus formatting error: unmatched [')
    return newtext


def _adjust_lines(lines):
    """Adjust linebreaks to match ';', strip leading/trailing whitespace.

    list_of_commandlines=_adjust_lines(input_text)
    Lines are adjusted so that no linebreaks occur within a commandline 
    (except matrix command line)
    """
    formatted_lines=[] 
    for l in lines:
        #Convert line endings
        l=l.replace('\r\n','\n').replace('\r','\n').strip()
        if l.lower().startswith('matrix'):
            formatted_lines.append(l)
        else:
            l=l.replace('\n',' ')
            if l:
                formatted_lines.append(l)
    return formatted_lines
    
def _replace_parenthesized_ambigs(seq,rev_ambig_values):
    """Replaces ambigs in xxx(ACG)xxx format by IUPAC ambiguity code."""

    opening=seq.find('(')
    while opening>-1:
        closing=seq.find(')')
        if closing<0:
            raise NexusError('Missing closing parenthesis in: '+seq)
        elif closing<opening:
            raise NexusError('Missing opening parenthesis in: '+seq)
        ambig=[x for x in seq[opening+1:closing]]
        ambig.sort()
        ambig=''.join(ambig)
        ambig_code=rev_ambig_values[ambig.upper()]
        if ambig!=ambig.upper():
            ambig_code=ambig_code.lower()
        seq=seq[:opening]+ambig_code+seq[closing+1:]        
        opening=seq.find('(')
    return seq

00468 class Commandline(object):
    """Represent a commandline as command and options."""
    
    def __init__(self, line, title):
        self.options={}
        options=[]
        self.command=None
        try:
            #Assume matrix (all other command lines have been stripped of \n)
            self.command, options = line.strip().split('\n', 1)
        except ValueError: #Not matrix
            #self.command,options=line.split(' ',1)  #no: could be tab or spaces (translate...)
            self.command=line.split()[0]
            options=' '.join(line.split()[1:])
        self.command = self.command.strip().lower()
        if self.command in SPECIAL_COMMANDS:   # special command that need newlines and order of options preserved
            self.options=options.strip()
        else:    
            if len(options) > 0:
                try: 
                    options = options.replace('=', ' = ').split()
                    valued_indices=[(n-1,n,n+1) for n in range(len(options)) if options[n]=='=' and n!=0 and n!=len((options))]
                    indices = []
                    for sl in valued_indices:
                        indices.extend(sl)
                    token_indices = [n for n in range(len(options)) if n not in indices]
                    for opt in valued_indices:
                        #self.options[options[opt[0]].lower()] = options[opt[2]].lower()
                        self.options[options[opt[0]].lower()] = options[opt[2]]
                    for token in token_indices:
                        self.options[options[token].lower()] = None
                except ValueError:
                    raise NexusError('Incorrect formatting in line: %s' % line)
                
00502 class Block(object):
    """Represent a NEXUS block with block name and list of commandlines."""
    def __init__(self,title=None):
        self.title=title
        self.commandlines=[]

00508 class Nexus(object):

    __slots__=['original_taxon_order','__dict__']

    def __init__(self, input=None):
        self.ntax=0                     # number of taxa
        self.nchar=0                    # number of characters
        self.unaltered_taxlabels=[]          # taxlabels as the appear in the input file (incl. duplicates, etc.)
        self.taxlabels=[]               # labels for taxa, ordered by their id
        self.charlabels=None            # ... and for characters
        self.statelabels=None           # ... and for states
        self.datatype='dna'             # (standard), dna, rna, nucleotide, protein
        self.respectcase=False          # case sensitivity
        self.missing='?'                # symbol for missing characters
        self.gap='-'                    # symbol for gap
        self.symbols=None               # set of symbols
        self.equate=None                # set of symbol synonyms
        self.matchchar=None             # matching char for matrix representation
        self.labels=None                # left, right, no
        self.transpose=False            # whether matrix is transposed
        self.interleave=False           # whether matrix is interleaved
        self.tokens=False               # unsupported          
        self.eliminate=None             # unsupported 
        self.matrix=None                # ...
        self.unknown_blocks=[]          # blocks we don't care about
        self.taxsets={}
        self.charsets={}
        self.charpartitions={}
        self.taxpartitions={}
        self.trees=[]                   # list of Trees (instances of Tree class)
        self.translate=None             # Dict to translate taxon <-> taxon numbers
        self.structured=[]              # structured input representation
        self.set={}                     # dict of the set command to set various options 
        self.options={}                 # dict of the options command in the data block
        self.codonposset=None           # name of the charpartition that defines codon positions

        # some defaults
        self.options['gapmode']='missing'
        
        if input:
            self.read(input)
        else:
            self.read(DEFAULTNEXUS)

00552     def get_original_taxon_order(self):
        """Included for backwards compatibility (DEPRECATED)."""
        return self.taxlabels
00555     def set_original_taxon_order(self,value):
        """Included for backwards compatibility (DEPRECATED)."""
        self.taxlabels=value
    original_taxon_order=property(get_original_taxon_order,set_original_taxon_order)
    
00560     def read(self,input):
        """Read and parse NEXUS imput (a filename, file-handle, or string)."""
        
        # 1. Assume we have the name of a file in the execution dir
        # Note we need to add parsing of the path to dir/filename
        try:
            file_contents = open(os.path.expanduser(input),'rU').read()
            self.filename=input
        except (TypeError,IOError,AttributeError):
            #2 Assume we have a string from a fh.read()
            if isinstance(input, str):
                file_contents = input
                self.filename='input_string'
            #3 Assume we have a file object
            elif hasattr(input,'read'): # file objects or StringIO objects
                file_contents=input.read()
                if hasattr(input,"name") and input.name:
                    self.filename=input.name
                else:
                    self.filename='Unknown_nexus_file'
            else:
                print input.strip()[:50]
                raise NexusError('Unrecognized input: %s ...' % input[:100])
        file_contents=file_contents.strip()
        if file_contents.startswith('#NEXUS'):
            file_contents=file_contents[6:]
        commandlines=_get_command_lines(file_contents)
        # get rid of stupid 'NEXUS token - in merged treefiles, this might appear multiple times'
        for i,cl in enumerate(commandlines):
            try:
                if cl[:6].upper()=='#NEXUS':
                    commandlines[i]=cl[6:].strip()
            except:
                pass
        # now loop through blocks (we parse only data in known blocks, thus ignoring non-block commands
        nexus_block_gen = self._get_nexus_block(commandlines)
        while 1:
            try:
                title, contents = nexus_block_gen.next()
            except StopIteration:
                break
            if title in KNOWN_NEXUS_BLOCKS:
                self._parse_nexus_block(title, contents)
            else:
                self._unknown_nexus_block(title, contents)

00606     def _get_nexus_block(self,file_contents):
        """Generator for looping through Nexus blocks."""
        inblock=False
        blocklines=[]
        while file_contents:
            cl=file_contents.pop(0)
            if cl.lower().startswith('begin'):
                if not inblock:
                    inblock=True
                    title=cl.split()[1].lower()
                else:
                    raise NexusError('Illegal block nesting in block %s' % title)
            elif cl.lower().startswith('end'):
                if inblock:
                    inblock=False
                    yield title,blocklines
                    blocklines=[]
                else:
                    raise NexusError('Unmatched \'end\'.')
            elif inblock:
                blocklines.append(cl)

    def _unknown_nexus_block(self,title, contents):
        block = Block()
        block.commandlines.append(contents)
        block.title = title
        self.unknown_blocks.append(block)        

00634     def _parse_nexus_block(self,title, contents):
        """Parse a known Nexus Block (PRIVATE)."""
        # attached the structered block representation
        self._apply_block_structure(title, contents)
        #now check for taxa,characters,data blocks. If this stuff is defined more than once
        #the later occurences will override the previous ones.
        block=self.structured[-1] 
        for line in block.commandlines:
            try:
                getattr(self,'_'+line.command)(line.options)
            except AttributeError:
                raise
                raise NexusError('Unknown command: %s ' % line.command)
    
    def _title(self,options):
        pass

    def _dimensions(self,options):
        if 'ntax' in options:
            self.ntax=eval(options['ntax'])
        if 'nchar' in options:
            self.nchar=eval(options['nchar'])

    def _format(self,options):
        # print options
        # we first need to test respectcase, then symbols (which depends on respectcase)
        # then datatype (which, if standard, depends on symbols and respectcase in order to generate
        # dicts for ambiguous values and alphabet
        if 'respectcase' in options:
            self.respectcase=True
        # adjust symbols to for respectcase
        if 'symbols' in options:
            self.symbols=options['symbols']
            if (self.symbols.startswith('"') and self.symbols.endswith('"')) or\
            (self.symbold.startswith("'") and self.symbols.endswith("'")):
                self.symbols=self.symbols[1:-1].replace(' ','')
            if not self.respectcase:
                self.symbols=self.symbols.lower()+self.symbols.upper()
                self.symbols=list(set(self.symbols))
        if 'datatype' in options:
            self.datatype=options['datatype'].lower()
            if self.datatype=='dna' or self.datatype=='nucleotide':
                self.alphabet=copy.deepcopy(IUPAC.ambiguous_dna)
                self.ambiguous_values=copy.deepcopy(IUPACData.ambiguous_dna_values)
                self.unambiguous_letters=copy.deepcopy(IUPACData.unambiguous_dna_letters)
            elif self.datatype=='rna':
                self.alphabet=copy.deepcopy(IUPAC.ambiguous_rna)
                self.ambiguous_values=copy.deepcopy(IUPACData.ambiguous_rna_values)
                self.unambiguous_letters=copy.deepcopy(IUPACData.unambiguous_rna_letters)
            elif self.datatype=='protein':
                self.alphabet=copy.deepcopy(IUPAC.protein)
                self.ambiguous_values={'B':'DN','Z':'EQ','X':copy.deepcopy(IUPACData.protein_letters)} # that's how PAUP handles it
                self.unambiguous_letters=copy.deepcopy(IUPACData.protein_letters)+'*' # stop-codon
            elif self.datatype=='standard':
                raise NexusError('Datatype standard is not yet supported.')
                #self.alphabet=None
                #self.ambiguous_values={}
                #if not self.symbols:
                #    self.symbols='01' # if nothing else defined, then 0 and 1 are the default states
                #self.unambiguous_letters=self.symbols
            else:
                raise NexusError('Unsupported datatype: '+self.datatype)
            self.valid_characters=''.join(self.ambiguous_values)+self.unambiguous_letters
            if not self.respectcase:
                self.valid_characters=self.valid_characters.lower()+self.valid_characters.upper()
            #we have to sort the reverse ambig coding dict key characters:
            #to be sure that it's 'ACGT':'N' and not 'GTCA':'N'
            rev=dict((i[1],i[0]) for i in self.ambiguous_values.iteritems() if i[0]!='X')
            self.rev_ambiguous_values={}
            for (k,v) in rev.iteritems():
                key=[c for c in k]
                key.sort()
                self.rev_ambiguous_values[''.join(key)]=v
        #overwrite symbols for datype rna,dna,nucleotide
        if self.datatype in ['dna','rna','nucleotide']:
            self.symbols=self.alphabet.letters
            if self.missing not in self.ambiguous_values:
                self.ambiguous_values[self.missing]=self.unambiguous_letters+self.gap
            self.ambiguous_values[self.gap]=self.gap
        elif self.datatype=='standard':
            if not self.symbols:
                self.symbols=['1','0']
        if 'missing' in options:
            self.missing=options['missing'][0]
        if 'gap' in options:
            self.gap=options['gap'][0]
        if 'equate' in options:
            self.equate=options['equate']
        if 'matchchar' in options:
            self.matchchar=options['matchchar'][0]
        if 'labels' in options:
            self.labels=options['labels']
        if 'transpose' in options:
            raise NexusError('TRANSPOSE is not supported!')
            self.transpose=True
        if 'interleave' in options:
            if options['interleave']==None or options['interleave'].lower()=='yes':
                self.interleave=True
        if 'tokens' in options:
            self.tokens=True
        if 'notokens' in options:
            self.tokens=False


    def _set(self,options):
        self.set=options;

    def _options(self,options):
        self.options=options;

    def _eliminate(self,options):
        self.eliminate=options

00747     def _taxlabels(self,options):
        """Get taxon labels (PRIVATE).

        As the taxon names are already in the matrix, this is superfluous
        except for transpose matrices, which are currently unsupported anyway.
        Thus, we ignore the taxlabels command to make handling of duplicate
        taxon names easier.
        """
        pass
        #self.taxlabels=[]
        #opts=CharBuffer(options)
        #while True:
        #    taxon=quotestrip(opts.next_word())
        #    if not taxon:
        #        break
        #    self.taxlabels.append(taxon)

00764     def _check_taxlabels(self,taxon): 
        """Check for presence of taxon in self.taxlabels."""
        # According to NEXUS standard, underscores shall be treated as spaces...,
        # so checking for identity is more difficult
        nextaxa=dict([(t.replace(' ','_'),t) for t in self.taxlabels])
        nexid=taxon.replace(' ','_')
        return nextaxa.get(nexid)

    def _charlabels(self,options):
        self.charlabels={}
        opts=CharBuffer(options)
        while True:
            try:
                # get id and state
                w=opts.next_word()
                if w is None: # McClade saves and reads charlabel-lists with terminal comma?!
                    break
                identifier=self._resolve(w,set_type=CHARSET) 
                state=quotestrip(opts.next_word())
                self.charlabels[identifier]=state
                # check for comma or end of command
                c=opts.next_nonwhitespace()
                if c is None:
                    break
                elif c!=',':
                    raise NexusError('Missing \',\' in line %s.' % options)
            except NexusError:
                raise
            except:
                raise NexusError('Format error in line %s.' % options)

    def _charstatelabels(self,options):
        # warning: charstatelabels supports only charlabels-syntax!
        self._charlabels(options)

    def _statelabels(self,options):
        #self.charlabels=options
        #print 'Command statelabels is not supported and will be ignored.'
        pass

    def _matrix(self,options):
        if not self.ntax or not self.nchar:
            raise NexusError('Dimensions must be specified before matrix!')
        self.matrix={}
        taxcount=0
        first_matrix_block=True
    
        #eliminate empty lines and leading/trailing whitespace 
        lines=[l.strip() for l in options.split('\n') if l.strip()!='']
        lineiter=iter(lines)
        while 1:
            try:
                l=lineiter.next()
            except StopIteration:
                if taxcount<self.ntax:
                    raise NexusError('Not enough taxa in matrix.')
                elif taxcount>self.ntax:
                    raise NexusError('Too many taxa in matrix.')
                else:
                    break
            # count the taxa and check for interleaved matrix
            taxcount+=1
            ##print taxcount
            if taxcount>self.ntax:
                if not self.interleave:
                    raise NexusError('Too many taxa in matrix - should matrix be interleaved?')
                else:
                    taxcount=1
                    first_matrix_block=False
            #get taxon name and sequence
            linechars=CharBuffer(l)
            id=quotestrip(linechars.next_word())
            l=linechars.rest().strip()
            chars=''
            if self.interleave:
                #interleaved matrix
                #print 'In interleave'
                if l:
                    chars=''.join(l.split())
                else:
                    chars=''.join(lineiter.next().split())
            else:
                #non-interleaved matrix
                chars=''.join(l.split())
                while len(chars)<self.nchar:
                    l=lineiter.next()
                    chars+=''.join(l.split())
            iupac_seq=Seq(_replace_parenthesized_ambigs(chars,self.rev_ambiguous_values),self.alphabet)
            #first taxon has the reference sequence if matchhar is used
            if taxcount==1:
                refseq=iupac_seq
            else:
                if self.matchchar:
                    while 1:
                        p=iupac_seq.tostring().find(self.matchchar)
                        if p==-1:
                            break
                        iupac_seq=Seq(iupac_seq.tostring()[:p]+refseq[p]+iupac_seq.tostring()[p+1:],self.alphabet)
            #check for invalid characters
            for i,c in enumerate(iupac_seq.tostring()):
                if c not in self.valid_characters and c!=self.gap and c!=self.missing:
                    raise NexusError( \
                        ('Taxon %s: Illegal character %s in sequence %s ' + \
                         '(check dimensions/interleaving)') % (id,c, iupac_seq))
            #add sequence to matrix
            if first_matrix_block:
                self.unaltered_taxlabels.append(id)
                id=_unique_label(self.matrix.keys(),id)
                self.matrix[id]=iupac_seq
                self.taxlabels.append(id)
            else:
                # taxon names need to be in the same order in each interleaved block
                id=_unique_label(self.taxlabels[:taxcount-1],id)
                taxon_present=self._check_taxlabels(id)
                if taxon_present:
                    self.matrix[taxon_present]+=iupac_seq
                else:
                    raise NexusError('Taxon %s not in first block of interleaved matrix. Check matrix dimensions and interleave.' % id)
        #check all sequences for length according to nchar
        for taxon in self.matrix:
            if len(self.matrix[taxon])!=self.nchar:
                raise NexusError('Matrx Nchar %d does not match data length (%d) for taxon %s' \
                                 % (self.nchar, len(self.matrix[taxon]),taxon))
        #check that taxlabels is identical with matrix.keys. If not, it's a problem
        matrixkeys=sorted(self.matrix)
        taxlabelssort=self.taxlabels[:]
        taxlabelssort.sort()
        assert matrixkeys==taxlabelssort,"ERROR: TAXLABELS must be identical with MATRIX. Please Report this as a bug, and send in data file."

    def _translate(self,options):
        self.translate={}
        opts=CharBuffer(options)
        while True:
            try:
                # get id and state
                identifier=int(opts.next_word()) 
                label=quotestrip(opts.next_word())
                self.translate[identifier]=label
                # check for comma or end of command
                c=opts.next_nonwhitespace()
                if c is None:
                    break
                elif c!=',':
                    raise NexusError('Missing \',\' in line %s.' % options)
            except NexusError:
                raise
            except:
                raise NexusError('Format error in line %s.' % options)

00913     def _utree(self,options):
        """Some software (clustalx) uses 'utree' to denote an unrooted tree."""
        self._tree(options)
        
    def _tree(self,options):
        opts=CharBuffer(options)
        if opts.peek_nonwhitespace()=='*': # a star can be used to make it the default tree in some software packages
            dummy=opts.next_nonwhitespace()
        name=opts.next_word()
        if opts.next_nonwhitespace()!='=':
            raise NexusError('Syntax error in tree description: %s' \
                             % options[:50])
        rooted=False
        weight=1.0
        while opts.peek_nonwhitespace()=='[':
            open=opts.next_nonwhitespace()
            symbol=opts.next()
            if symbol!='&':
                raise NexusError('Illegal special comment [%s...] in tree description: %s' \
                                 % (symbol, options[:50]))
            special=opts.next()
            value=opts.next_until(']')
            closing=opts.next()
            if special=='R':
                rooted=True
            elif special=='U':
                rooted=False
            elif special=='W':
                weight=float(value)
        tree=Tree(name=name,weight=weight,rooted=rooted,tree=opts.rest().strip())
        # if there's an active translation table, translate
        if self.translate:
            for n in tree.get_terminals():
                try:
                    tree.node(n).data.taxon=safename(self.translate[int(tree.node(n).data.taxon)])
                except (ValueError,KeyError):
                    raise NexusError('Unable to substitue %s using \'translate\' data.' \
                                     % tree.node(n).data.taxon)
        self.trees.append(tree)

    def _apply_block_structure(self,title,lines):
        block=Block('')
        block.title = title            
        for line in lines:
            block.commandlines.append(Commandline(line, title))
        self.structured.append(block)
       
    def _taxset(self, options):
        name,taxa=self._get_indices(options,set_type=TAXSET)
        self.taxsets[name]=_make_unique(taxa)
                
    def _charset(self, options):
        name,sites=self._get_indices(options,set_type=CHARSET)
        self.charsets[name]=_make_unique(sites)
        
    def _taxpartition(self, options):
        taxpartition={}
        quotelevel=False
        opts=CharBuffer(options)
        name=self._name_n_vector(opts)
        if not name:
            raise NexusError('Formatting error in taxpartition: %s ' % options)
        # now collect thesubbpartitions and parse them
        # subpartitons separated by commas - which unfortunately could be part of a quoted identifier...
        # this is rather unelegant, but we have to avoid double-parsing and potential change of special nexus-words
        sub=''
        while True:
            w=opts.next()
            if w is None or (w==',' and not quotelevel):
                subname,subindices=self._get_indices(sub,set_type=TAXSET,separator=':')
                taxpartition[subname]=_make_unique(subindices)
                sub=''
                if w is None:
                    break
            else:
                if w=="'":
                    quotelevel=not quotelevel
                sub+=w
        self.taxpartitions[name]=taxpartition

00993     def _codonposset(self,options):
        """Read codon positions from a codons block as written from McClade.

        Here codonposset is just a fancy name for a character partition with
        the name CodonPositions and the partitions N,1,2,3
        """

        prev_partitions=self.charpartitions
        self._charpartition(options)
        # mcclade calls it CodonPositions, but you never know...
        codonname=[n for n in self.charpartitions if n not in prev_partitions]
        if codonname==[] or len(codonname)>1:
            raise NexusError('Formatting Error in codonposset: %s ' % options)
        else:
            self.codonposset=codonname[0]
  
    def _codeset(self,options):
        pass

    def _charpartition(self, options):
        charpartition={}
        quotelevel=False
        opts=CharBuffer(options)
        name=self._name_n_vector(opts)
        if not name:
            raise NexusError('Formatting error in charpartition: %s ' % options)
        # now collect thesubbpartitions and parse them
        # subpartitons separated by commas - which unfortunately could be part of a quoted identifier...
        sub=''
        while True:
            w=opts.next()
            if w is None or (w==',' and not quotelevel):
                subname,subindices=self._get_indices(sub,set_type=CHARSET,separator=':')
                charpartition[subname]=_make_unique(subindices)
                sub=''
                if w is None:
                    break
            else:
                if w=="'":
                    quotelevel=not quotelevel
                sub+=w
        self.charpartitions[name]=charpartition

01036     def _get_indices(self,options,set_type=CHARSET,separator='='):
        """Parse the taxset/charset specification (PRIVATE).

        e.g. '1 2   3 - 5 dog cat   10 - 20 \\ 3'
        --> [0,1,2,3,4,'dog','cat',9,12,15,18]
        """
        opts=CharBuffer(options)
        name=self._name_n_vector(opts,separator=separator)
        indices=self._parse_list(opts,set_type=set_type)
        if indices is None:
            raise NexusError('Formatting error in line: %s ' % options)
        return name,indices

01049     def _name_n_vector(self,opts,separator='='):
        """Extract name and check that it's not in vector format."""
        rest=opts.rest()
        name=opts.next_word()
        # we ignore * before names
        if name=='*':
            name=opts.next_word()
        if not name:
            raise NexusError('Formatting error in line: %s ' % rest)
        name=quotestrip(name)
        if opts.peek_nonwhitespace=='(':
            open=opts.next_nonwhitespace()
            qualifier=open.next_word()
            close=opts.next_nonwhitespace()
            if  qualifier.lower()=='vector':
                raise NexusError('Unsupported VECTOR format in line %s' \
                                 % (opts))
            elif qualifier.lower()!='standard':
                raise NexusError('Unknown qualifier %s in line %s' \
                                 % (qualifier, opts))
        if opts.next_nonwhitespace()!=separator:
            raise NexusError('Formatting error in line: %s ' % rest)
        return name
    
01073     def _parse_list(self,options_buffer,set_type):
        """Parse a NEXUS list (PRIVATE).

        e.g. [1, 2, 4-8\\2, dog, cat] --> [1,2,4,6,8,17,21],
        (assuming dog is taxon no. 17 and cat is taxon no. 21).
        """
        plain_list=[]
        if options_buffer.peek_nonwhitespace():
            try:    # capture all possible exceptions and treat them as formatting erros, if they are not NexusError
                while True:
                    identifier=options_buffer.next_word()                                     # next list element
                    if not identifier:                                              # end of list?
                        break
                    start=self._resolve(identifier,set_type=set_type)
                    if options_buffer.peek_nonwhitespace()=='-':                            # followd by -
                        end=start
                        step=1
                        # get hyphen and end of range
                        hyphen=options_buffer.next_nonwhitespace()
                        end=self._resolve(options_buffer.next_word(),set_type=set_type)
                        if set_type==CHARSET:
                            if options_buffer.peek_nonwhitespace()=='\\':                           # followd by \
                                backslash=options_buffer.next_nonwhitespace()
                                step=int(options_buffer.next_word())         # get backslash and step
                            plain_list.extend(range(start,end+1,step)) 
                        else:
                            if type(start)==list or type(end)==list:
                                raise NexusError('Name if character sets not allowed in range definition: %s'\
                                                 % identifier)
                            start=self.taxlabels.index(start)
                            end=self.taxlabels.index(end)
                            taxrange=self.taxlabels[start:end+1]
                            plain_list.extend(taxrange)
                    else:
                        if type(start)==list:           # start was the name of charset or taxset
                            plain_list.extend(start)
                        else:                           # start was an ordinary identifier
                            plain_list.append(start)
            except NexusError:
                raise
            except:
                return None
        return plain_list
        
01117     def _resolve(self,identifier,set_type=None):
        """Translate identifier in list into character/taxon index.

        Characters (which are referred to by their index in Nexus.py):
            Plain numbers are returned minus 1 (Nexus indices to python indices)
            Text identifiers are translaterd into their indices (if plain character indentifiers),
            the first hit in charlabels is returned (charlabels don't need to be unique)
            or the range of indices is returned (if names of character sets).
        Taxa (which are referred to by their unique name in Nexus.py):
            Plain numbers are translated in their taxon name, underscores and spaces are considered equal.
            Names are returned unchanged (if plain taxon identifiers), or the names in
            the corresponding taxon set is returned
        """
        identifier=quotestrip(identifier)
        if not set_type:
            raise NexusError('INTERNAL ERROR: Need type to resolve identifier.')
        if set_type==CHARSET:
            try:
                n=int(identifier)
            except ValueError:
                if self.charlabels and identifier in self.charlabels.itervalues():
                    for k in self.charlabels:
                        if self.charlabels[k]==identifier:
                            return k
                elif self.charsets and identifier in self.charsets:
                    return self.charsets[identifier]
                else:
                    raise NexusError('Unknown character identifier: %s' \
                                     % identifier)
            else:
                if n<=self.nchar:
                    return n-1
                else:
                    raise NexusError('Illegal character identifier: %d>nchar (=%d).' \
                                     % (identifier,self.nchar))
        elif set_type==TAXSET:
            try:
                n=int(identifier)
            except ValueError:
                taxlabels_id=self._check_taxlabels(identifier)
                if taxlabels_id:
                    return taxlabels_id
                elif self.taxsets and identifier in self.taxsets:
                    return self.taxsets[identifier]
                else:
                    raise NexusError('Unknown taxon identifier: %s' \
                                     % identifier)
            else:
                if n>0 and n<=self.ntax:
                    return self.taxlabels[n-1]
                else:
                    raise NexusError('Illegal taxon identifier: %d>ntax (=%d).' \
                                     % (identifier,self.ntax))
        else:
            raise NexusError('Unknown set specification: %s.'% set_type)

    def _stateset(self, options):
        #Not implemented
        pass

    def _changeset(self, options):
        #Not implemented
        pass

    def _treeset(self, options):
        #Not implemented
        pass

    def _treepartition(self, options):
        #Not implemented
        pass

01189     def write_nexus_data_partitions(self, matrix=None, filename=None, blocksize=None, interleave=False,
            exclude=[], delete=[], charpartition=None, comment='',mrbayes=False):
        """Writes a nexus file for each partition in charpartition.

        Only non-excluded characters and non-deleted taxa are included,
        just the data block is written.
        """

        if not matrix:
            matrix=self.matrix
        if not matrix:
            return
        if not filename:
            filename=self.filename
        if charpartition:
            pfilenames={}
            for p in charpartition:
                total_exclude=[]+exclude
                total_exclude.extend([c for c in range(self.nchar) if c not in charpartition[p]])
                total_exclude=_make_unique(total_exclude)
                pcomment=comment+'\nPartition: '+p+'\n'
                dot=filename.rfind('.')
                if dot>0:
                    pfilename=filename[:dot]+'_'+p+'.data'
                else:
                    pfilename=filename+'_'+p
                pfilenames[p]=pfilename
                self.write_nexus_data(filename=pfilename,matrix=matrix,blocksize=blocksize,
                        interleave=interleave,exclude=total_exclude,delete=delete,comment=pcomment,append_sets=False,
                        mrbayes=mrbayes)
            return pfilenames
        else:
            fn=self.filename+'.data'
            self.write_nexus_data(filename=fn,matrix=matrix,blocksize=blocksize,interleave=interleave,
                    exclude=exclude,delete=delete,comment=comment,append_sets=False,
                    mrbayes=mrbayes)
            return fn
    
01227     def write_nexus_data(self, filename=None, matrix=None, exclude=[], delete=[],\
            blocksize=None, interleave=False, interleave_by_partition=False,\
            comment=None,omit_NEXUS=False,append_sets=True,mrbayes=False,\
            codons_block=True):
        """Writes a nexus file with data and sets block to a file or handle.

        Character sets and partitions are appended by default, and are
        adjusted according to excluded characters (i.e. character sets
        still point to the same sites (not necessarily same positions),
        without including the deleted characters.

        filename - Either a filename as a string (which will be opened,
                   written to and closed), or a handle object (which will
                   be written to but NOT closed).
        interleave_by_partition - Optional name of partition (string)
        omit_NEXUS - Boolean.  If true, the '#NEXUS' line normally at the
                   start of the file is ommited.

        Returns the filename/handle used to write the data.
        """
        if not matrix:
            matrix=self.matrix
        if not matrix:
            return
        if not filename:
            filename=self.filename
        if [t for t in delete if not self._check_taxlabels(t)]:
            raise NexusError('Unknown taxa: %s' \
                             % ', '.join(set(delete).difference(set(self.taxlabels))))
        if interleave_by_partition:
            if not interleave_by_partition in self.charpartitions:
                raise NexusError('Unknown partition: %r' % interleave_by_partition)
            else:
                partition=self.charpartitions[interleave_by_partition]
                # we need to sort the partition names by starting position before we exclude characters
                names=_sort_keys_by_values(partition)
                newpartition={}
                for p in partition:
                    newpartition[p]=[c for c in partition[p] if c not in exclude]
        # how many taxa and how many characters are left?
        undelete=[taxon for taxon in self.taxlabels if taxon in matrix and taxon not in delete]
        cropped_matrix=_seqmatrix2strmatrix(self.crop_matrix(matrix,exclude=exclude,delete=delete))
        ntax_adjusted=len(undelete)
        nchar_adjusted=len(cropped_matrix[undelete[0]])
        if not undelete or (undelete and undelete[0]==''):
            return
        if isinstance(filename,basestring):
            try:
                fh=open(filename,'w',encoding="utf-8")
            except IOError:
                raise NexusError('Could not open %s for writing.' % filename)
        elif hasattr(filename, 'write'):
            #e.g. StringIO or a real file handle
            fh=filename
        else:
            raise ValueError("Neither a filename nor a handle was supplied")
        if not omit_NEXUS:
            fh.write('#NEXUS\n')
        if comment:
            fh.write('['+comment+']\n')
        fh.write('begin data;\n')
        fh.write('\tdimensions ntax=%d nchar=%d;\n' % (ntax_adjusted, nchar_adjusted))
        fh.write('\tformat datatype='+self.datatype)
        if self.respectcase:
            fh.write(' respectcase')
        if self.missing:
            fh.write(' missing='+self.missing)
        if self.gap:
            fh.write(' gap='+self.gap)
        if self.matchchar:
            fh.write(' matchchar='+self.matchchar)
        if self.labels:
            fh.write(' labels='+self.labels)
        if self.equate:
            fh.write(' equate='+self.equate)
        if interleave or interleave_by_partition:
            fh.write(' interleave')
        fh.write(';\n')
        #if self.taxlabels:
        #    fh.write('taxlabels '+' '.join(self.taxlabels)+';\n')
        if self.charlabels:
            newcharlabels=self._adjust_charlabels(exclude=exclude)
            clkeys=sorted(newcharlabels)
            fh.write('charlabels '+', '.join(["%s %s" % (k+1,safename(newcharlabels[k])) for k in clkeys])+';\n')
        fh.write('matrix\n')
        if not blocksize:
            if interleave:
                blocksize=70
            else:
                blocksize=self.nchar
        # delete deleted taxa and ecxclude excluded characters...
        namelength=max([len(safename(t,mrbayes=mrbayes)) for t in undelete])
        if interleave_by_partition:
            # interleave by partitions, but adjust partitions with regard to excluded characters
            seek=0
            for p in names:
                fh.write('[%s: %s]\n' % (interleave_by_partition,p))
                if len(newpartition[p])>0:
                    for taxon in undelete:
                        fh.write(safename(taxon,mrbayes=mrbayes).ljust(namelength+1))
                        fh.write(cropped_matrix[taxon][seek:seek+len(newpartition[p])]+'\n')
                    fh.write('\n')
                else:
                    fh.write('[empty]\n\n')
                seek+=len(newpartition[p])
        elif interleave:
            for seek in range(0,nchar_adjusted,blocksize):
                for taxon in undelete:
                    fh.write(safename(taxon,mrbayes=mrbayes).ljust(namelength+1))
                    fh.write(cropped_matrix[taxon][seek:seek+blocksize]+'\n')
                fh.write('\n')
        else:
            for taxon in undelete:
                if blocksize<nchar_adjusted:
                    fh.write(safename(taxon,mrbayes=mrbayes)+'\n')
                else:
                    fh.write(safename(taxon,mrbayes=mrbayes).ljust(namelength+1))
                for seek in range(0,nchar_adjusted,blocksize):
                    fh.write(cropped_matrix[taxon][seek:seek+blocksize]+'\n')
        fh.write(';\nend;\n')
        if append_sets:
            if codons_block:
                fh.write(self.append_sets(exclude=exclude,delete=delete,mrbayes=mrbayes,include_codons=False))
                fh.write(self.append_sets(exclude=exclude,delete=delete,mrbayes=mrbayes,codons_only=True))
            else:
                fh.write(self.append_sets(exclude=exclude,delete=delete,mrbayes=mrbayes))

        if fh == filename:
            #We were given the handle, don't close it.
            return filename
        else:
            #We opened the handle, so we should close it.
            fh.close()
            return filename

01362     def append_sets(self,exclude=[],delete=[],mrbayes=False,include_codons=True,codons_only=False):
        """Returns a sets block."""
        if not self.charsets and not self.taxsets and not self.charpartitions:
            return ''
        if codons_only:
            setsb=['\nbegin codons']
        else:
            setsb=['\nbegin sets']
        # - now if characters have been excluded, the character sets need to be adjusted,
        #   so that they still point to the right character positions
        # calculate a list of offsets: for each deleted character, the following character position
        # in the new file will have an additional offset of -1
        offset=0
        offlist=[]
        for c in range(self.nchar):
            if c in exclude:
                offset+=1
                offlist.append(-1)  # dummy value as these character positions are excluded
            else:
                offlist.append(c-offset)
        # now adjust each of the character sets
        if not codons_only:
            for n,ns in self.charsets.iteritems():
                cset=[offlist[c] for c in ns if c not in exclude]
                if cset: 
                    setsb.append('charset %s = %s' % (safename(n),_compact4nexus(cset))) 
            for n,s in self.taxsets.iteritems():
                tset=[safename(t,mrbayes=mrbayes) for t in s if t not in delete]
                if tset:
                    setsb.append('taxset %s = %s' % (safename(n),' '.join(tset))) 
        for n,p in self.charpartitions.iteritems():
            if not include_codons and n==CODONPOSITIONS:
                continue
            elif codons_only and n!=CODONPOSITIONS:
                continue
            # as characters have been excluded, the partitions must be adjusted
            # if a partition is empty, it will be omitted from the charpartition command
            # (although paup allows charpartition part=t1:,t2:,t3:1-100)
            names=_sort_keys_by_values(p)
            newpartition={}
            for sn in names:
                nsp=[offlist[c] for c in p[sn] if c not in exclude]
                if nsp:
                    newpartition[sn]=nsp
            if newpartition:
                if include_codons and n==CODONPOSITIONS:
                    command='codonposset'
                else:
                    command='charpartition'
                setsb.append('%s %s = %s' % (command,safename(n),\
                ', '.join(['%s: %s' % (sn,_compact4nexus(newpartition[sn])) for sn in names if sn in newpartition])))
        # now write charpartititions, much easier than charpartitions
        for n,p in self.taxpartitions.iteritems():
            names=_sort_keys_by_values(p)
            newpartition={}
            for sn in names:
                nsp=[t for t in p[sn] if t not in delete]
                if nsp:
                    newpartition[sn]=nsp
            if newpartition:
                setsb.append('taxpartition %s = %s' % (safename(n),\
                ', '.join(['%s: %s' % (safename(sn),' '.join(map(safename,newpartition[sn]))) for sn in names if sn in newpartition])))
        # add 'end' and return everything
        setsb.append('end;\n')
        if len(setsb)==2: # begin and end only
                return ''
        else:
            return ';\n'.join(setsb)
    
01431     def export_fasta(self, filename=None, width=70):
        """Writes matrix into a fasta file: (self, filename=None, width=70)."""       
        if not filename:
            if '.' in self.filename and self.filename.split('.')[-1].lower() in ['paup','nexus','nex','dat']:
                filename='.'.join(self.filename.split('.')[:-1])+'.fas'
            else:
                filename=self.filename+'.fas'
        fh=open(filename,'w')
        for taxon in self.taxlabels:
            fh.write('>'+safename(taxon)+'\n')
            for i in range(0, len(self.matrix[taxon].tostring()), width):
                fh.write(self.matrix[taxon].tostring()[i:i+width] + '\n')    
        fh.close()
        return filename

01446     def export_phylip(self, filename=None):
        """Writes matrix into a PHYLIP file: (self, filename=None).

        Note that this writes a relaxed PHYLIP format file, where the names
        are not truncated, nor checked for invalid characters."""
        if not filename:
            if '.' in self.filename and self.filename.split('.')[-1].lower() in ['paup','nexus','nex','dat']:
                filename='.'.join(self.filename.split('.')[:-1])+'.phy'
            else:
                filename=self.filename+'.phy'
        fh=open(filename,'w')
        fh.write('%d %d\n' % (self.ntax,self.nchar))
        for taxon in self.taxlabels:
            fh.write('%s %s\n' % (safename(taxon),self.matrix[taxon].tostring()))
        fh.close()
        return filename
    
01463     def constant(self,matrix=None,delete=[],exclude=[]):
        """Return a list with all constant characters."""
        if not matrix:
            matrix=self.matrix
        undelete=[t for t in self.taxlabels if t in matrix and t not in delete]
        if not undelete:
            return None
        elif len(undelete)==1:
            return [x for x in range(len(matrix[undelete[0]])) if x not in exclude]
        # get the first sequence and expand all ambiguous values
        constant=[(x,self.ambiguous_values.get(n.upper(),n.upper())) for 
                x,n in enumerate(matrix[undelete[0]].tostring()) if x not in exclude]
        for taxon in undelete[1:]:
            newconstant=[]
            for site in constant:
                #print '%d (paup=%d)' % (site[0],site[0]+1),
                seqsite=matrix[taxon][site[0]].upper()
                #print seqsite,'checked against',site[1],'\t',
                if seqsite==self.missing or (seqsite==self.gap and self.options['gapmode'].lower()=='missing') or seqsite==site[1]: 
                    # missing or same as before  -> ok
                    newconstant.append(site)
                elif seqsite in site[1] or site[1]==self.missing or (self.options['gapmode'].lower()=='missing' and site[1]==self.gap):
                    # subset of an ambig or only missing in previous -> take subset
                    newconstant.append((site[0],self.ambiguous_values.get(seqsite,seqsite)))
                elif seqsite in self.ambiguous_values:  # is it an ambig: check the intersection with prev. values
                    intersect = set(self.ambiguous_values[seqsite]).intersection(set(site[1]))
                    if intersect:
                        newconstant.append((site[0],''.join(intersect)))
                    #    print 'ok'
                    #else:
                    #    print 'failed'
                #else:
                #    print 'failed'
            constant=newconstant
        cpos=[s[0] for s in constant]
        return cpos

01500     def cstatus(self,site,delete=[],narrow=True):
        """Summarize character.

        narrow=True:  paup-mode (a c ? --> ac; ? ? ? --> ?)
        narrow=false:           (a c ? --> a c g t -; ? ? ? --> a c g t -)
        """
        undelete=[t for t in self.taxlabels if t not in delete]
        if not undelete:
            return None
        cstatus=[]
        for t in undelete:
            c=self.matrix[t][site].upper()
            if self.options.get('gapmode')=='missing' and c==self.gap:
                c=self.missing
            if narrow and c==self.missing:
                if c not in cstatus:
                    cstatus.append(c)
            else:
                cstatus.extend([b for b in self.ambiguous_values[c] if b not in cstatus])
        if self.missing in cstatus and narrow and len(cstatus)>1:
            cstatus=[c for c in cstatus if c!=self.missing]
        cstatus.sort()
        return cstatus

01524     def weighted_stepmatrix(self,name='your_name_here',exclude=[],delete=[]):
        """Calculates a stepmatrix for weighted parsimony.

        See Wheeler (1990), Cladistics 6:269-275 and
        Felsenstein (1981), Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 16:183-196
        """    
        m=StepMatrix(self.unambiguous_letters,self.gap)
        for site in [s for s in range(self.nchar) if s not in exclude]:
            cstatus=self.cstatus(site,delete)
            for i,b1 in enumerate(cstatus[:-1]):
                for b2 in cstatus[i+1:]:
                    m.add(b1.upper(),b2.upper(),1)
        return m.transformation().weighting().smprint(name=name)

01538     def crop_matrix(self,matrix=None, delete=[], exclude=[]):
        """Return a matrix without deleted taxa and excluded characters."""
        if not matrix:
            matrix=self.matrix
        if [t for t in delete if not self._check_taxlabels(t)]:
            raise NexusError('Unknown taxa: %s' \
                             % ', '.join(set(delete).difference(self.taxlabels)))
        if exclude!=[]:
            undelete=[t for t in self.taxlabels if t in matrix and t not in delete]
            if not undelete:
                return {}
            m=[matrix[k].tostring() for k in undelete]
            zipped_m=zip(*m)
            sitesm=[s for i,s in enumerate(zipped_m) if i not in exclude]
            if sitesm==[]:
                return dict([(t,Seq('',self.alphabet)) for t in undelete])
            else:
                zipped_sitesm=zip(*sitesm)
                m=[Seq(s,self.alphabet) for s in map(''.join,zipped_sitesm)]
                return dict(zip(undelete,m))
        else:
            return dict([(t,matrix[t]) for t in self.taxlabels if t in matrix and t not in delete])
           
01561     def bootstrap(self,matrix=None,delete=[],exclude=[]):
        """Return a bootstrapped matrix."""
        if not matrix:
            matrix=self.matrix
        seqobjects=isinstance(matrix[matrix.keys()[0]],Seq)         # remember if Seq objects
        cm=self.crop_matrix(delete=delete,exclude=exclude)          # crop data out
        if not cm:                                                  # everything deleted?
            return {}
        elif len(cm[cm.keys()[0]])==0:                              # everything excluded?
            return cm
        undelete=[t for t in self.taxlabels if t in cm]  
        if seqobjects:
            sitesm=zip(*[cm[t].tostring() for t in undelete])
            alphabet=matrix[matrix.keys()[0]].alphabet
        else:
            sitesm=zip(*[cm[t] for t in undelete])
        bootstrapsitesm=[sitesm[random.randint(0,len(sitesm)-1)] for i in range(len(sitesm))]
        bootstrapseqs=map(''.join,zip(*bootstrapsitesm))
        if seqobjects:
            bootstrapseqs=[Seq(s,alphabet) for s in bootstrapseqs]
        return dict(zip(undelete,bootstrapseqs)) 

01583     def add_sequence(self,name,sequence):
        """Adds a sequence (string) to the matrix."""
        
        if not name:
            raise NexusError('New sequence must have a name')

        diff=self.nchar-len(sequence)
        if diff<0:
            self.insert_gap(self.nchar,-diff)
        elif diff>0:
            sequence+=self.missing*diff

        if name in self.taxlabels:
            unique_name=_unique_label(self.taxlabels,name)
            #print "WARNING: Sequence name %s is already present. Sequence was added as %s." % (name,unique_name)
        else:
            unique_name=name

        assert unique_name not in self.matrix, "ERROR. There is a discrepancy between taxlabels and matrix keys. Report this as a bug."

        self.matrix[unique_name]=Seq(sequence,self.alphabet)
        self.ntax+=1
        self.taxlabels.append(unique_name)
        self.unaltered_taxlabels.append(name)

01608     def insert_gap(self,pos,n=1,leftgreedy=False):
        """Add a gap into the matrix and adjust charsets and partitions.
        
        pos=0: first position
        pos=nchar: last position
        """

        def _adjust(set,x,d,leftgreedy=False):
            """Adjusts chartacter sets if gaps are inserted, taking care of
            new gaps within a coherent character set.""" 
            # if 3 gaps are inserted at pos. 9 in a set that looks like 1 2 3  8 9 10 11 13 14 15
            # then the adjusted set will be 1 2 3  8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 
            # but inserting into position 8 it will stay like 1 2 3 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
            set.sort()
            addpos=0
            for i,c in enumerate(set):
                if c>=x:
                    set[i]=c+d
                # if we add gaps within a group of characters, we want the gap position included in this group
                if c==x:
                    if leftgreedy or (i>0 and set[i-1]==c-1):  
                        addpos=i
            if addpos>0:
                set[addpos:addpos]=range(x,x+d)
            return set

        if pos<0 or pos>self.nchar:
            raise NexusError('Illegal gap position: %d' % pos)
        if n==0:
            return
        if self.taxlabels:
            #python 2.3 does not support zip(*[])
            sitesm=zip(*[self.matrix[t].tostring() for t in self.taxlabels])
        else:
            sitesm=[]
        sitesm[pos:pos]=[['-']*len(self.taxlabels)]*n
        # #self.matrix=dict([(taxon,Seq(map(''.join,zip(*sitesm))[i],self.alphabet)) for\
        #        i,taxon in enumerate(self.taxlabels)])
        zipped=zip(*sitesm)
        mapped=map(''.join,zipped)
        listed=[(taxon,Seq(mapped[i],self.alphabet)) for i,taxon in enumerate(self.taxlabels)]
        self.matrix=dict(listed) 
        self.nchar+=n
        # now adjust character sets
        for i,s in self.charsets.iteritems():
            self.charsets[i]=_adjust(s,pos,n,leftgreedy=leftgreedy)
        for p in self.charpartitions:
            for sp,s in self.charpartitions[p].iteritems():
                self.charpartitions[p][sp]=_adjust(s,pos,n,leftgreedy=leftgreedy)
        # now adjust character state labels
        self.charlabels=self._adjust_charlabels(insert=[pos]*n)
        return self.charlabels
      
01661     def _adjust_charlabels(self,exclude=None,insert=None):
        """Return adjusted indices of self.charlabels if characters are excluded or inserted."""
        if exclude and insert:
            raise NexusError('Can\'t exclude and insert at the same time')
        if not self.charlabels:
            return None
        labels=sorted(self.charlabels)
        newcharlabels={}
        if exclude:
            exclude.sort()
            exclude.append(sys.maxint)
            excount=0
            for c in labels:
                if not c in exclude:
                    while c>exclude[excount]:
                        excount+=1
                    newcharlabels[c-excount]=self.charlabels[c]
        elif insert:
            insert.sort()
            insert.append(sys.maxint)
            icount=0
            for c in labels:
                while c>=insert[icount]:
                    icount+=1
                newcharlabels[c+icount]=self.charlabels[c]
        else:
            return self.charlabels
        return newcharlabels

01690     def invert(self,charlist):
        """Returns all character indices that are not in charlist."""
        return [c for c in range(self.nchar) if c not in charlist]

01694     def gaponly(self,include_missing=False):
        """Return gap-only sites."""
        gap=set(self.gap)
        if include_missing:
            gap.add(self.missing)
        sitesm=zip(*[self.matrix[t].tostring() for t in self.taxlabels])
        gaponly=[i for i,site in enumerate(sitesm) if set(site).issubset(gap)]
        return gaponly 
        
01703     def terminal_gap_to_missing(self,missing=None,skip_n=True):
        """Replaces all terminal gaps with missing character.
        
        Mixtures like ???------??------- are properly resolved."""
        
        if not missing:
            missing=self.missing
        replace=[self.missing,self.gap]
        if not skip_n:
            replace.extend(['n','N'])
        for taxon in self.taxlabels:
            sequence=self.matrix[taxon].tostring()
            length=len(sequence)
            start,end=get_start_end(sequence,skiplist=replace)
            if start==-1 and end==-1:
                sequence=missing*length
            else:
                sequence=sequence[:end+1]+missing*(length-end-1)
                sequence=start*missing+sequence[start:]
            assert length==len(sequence), 'Illegal sequence manipulation in Nexus.termial_gap_to_missing in taxon %s' % taxon
            self.matrix[taxon]=Seq(sequence,self.alphabet)


try:
    import cnexus
except ImportError:
    def _get_command_lines(file_contents):
        lines=_kill_comments_and_break_lines(file_contents)
        commandlines=_adjust_lines(lines)
        return commandlines
else:
    def _get_command_lines(file_contents):
        decommented=cnexus.scanfile(file_contents)
        #check for unmatched parentheses
        if decommented=='[' or decommented==']':
            raise NexusError('Unmatched %s' % decommented)
        # cnexus can't return lists, so in analogy we separate
        # commandlines with chr(7) (a character that shoudn't be part of a
        # nexus file under normal circumstances)
        commandlines=_adjust_lines(decommented.split(chr(7)))
        return commandlines

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